<nav id="iwlrv"><address id="iwlrv"><nobr id="iwlrv"></nobr></address></nav>
  • <sub id="iwlrv"></sub>
    1. <wbr id="iwlrv"><p id="iwlrv"><dl id="iwlrv"></dl></p></wbr>
            中國最具影響力的在職研究生門戶網!
            熱門搜索:在職研究生招生簡章 大專學歷可讀研的院校 考研常見問題
            您現在的位置: 在職研究生 > 試題中心 > 同等學力 >
            同等學力申碩英語沖刺備考之閱讀理解(附答案
            文章來源:www.awgr.cn 作者:在職研究生網 發表時間:2016-06-21閱讀:

            閱讀理解

            Visual impairment(視覺障礙)carries with it a reduced or restricted ability to travel through one´s physical and social environment until adequate orientation and mobility skills have been established. Because observational skills are more limited,self-control within the immediate surroundings is limited. The visually impaired person is less able to anticipate hazardous situations or obstacles to avoid.

            Orientation refers to the mental map one has of one´s surroundings and to the relationship between self and that environment. The mental map is best generated by moving through the environment and piecing together relationships,object by object,in an organized approach. With little or no visual feedback to reinforce this mental map,a visually impaired person must rely on memory for key landmarks and other clues. Landmarks and clues enable visually impaired persons to affirm their position in Space.

            Mobility,on the other hand,is the ability to travel safely and efficiently from one point to another within one´s physical and social environment. Good orientation skills are necessary to good mobility skills. Once visually impaired students learn to travel safely as pedestrians(行人)they also need to learn to use public transportation to become as independent as possible.

            To meet the expanding needs and demands of the visually impaired person,there is a sequence of instruction that begins during the preschool years and may continue after high school. Many visually impaired children lack adequate concepts regarding time and space or objects and events in their environment. During the early years much attention is focused on the development of some fundamental concepts,such as inside or outside,in front of or behind,fast or slow,movement of traffic,the variety or intersections,elevators or escalators,and so forth. These concepts are essential to safe,efficient travel through familiar and unfamiliar settings,first within buildings,then in residential neighborhoods,and finally in business communities.

            56. How can we increase the visually impaired person´s ability to travel through his physical and social environment?

            A. By helping him develop adequate orientation and mobility skills.

            B. By teaching him to learn observational skills.

            C. By warning him of hazardous situations or obstacles.

            D. By improving his visual ability.

            57. The visually impaired person´s position in space        .

            A. is not determined by memory but by physical landmarks and clues

            B. is located in relation to other items in his mental map

            C. enables him to construct the mental map

            D. reinforces the mental map of his surroundings

            58. Mobility skills which the visually impaired person is learning refer to the ability        .

            A. to travel as a dependent tourist

            B. to travel as a pedestrian and a passenger

            C. to travel as a pedestrian with a company

            D. to travel within the safe physical and social environment

            59. In the passage,the author insists that        .

            A. visually impaired children go to school for survival

            B. the needs and demands of visually impaired children expand

            C. visually impaired children acquire the fundamental concepts for safe mobility

            D. preschool children receive the instruction in the concepts of time and space or objects and events

            60. What is the author mainly talking about in the passage?

            A. Visual impairment and memory.

            B. The visually impaired person´s physical and social environment.

            C. Mental development of the visually impaired person.

            D. Orientation and mobility of the visually impaired person.

            答案解析:

            有視覺障礙的人如果沒有掌握足夠的定位和移動技能,他們在自然和社會環境中的行走能力會減弱或受到限制。因為在臨近的環境中的自控能力受到限制,觀察能力就更加受到限制,有視覺障礙的人不能預見應該避免的危險情況或障礙。

            定位指的是一個人根據自己周圍的環境以及他自身與這一環境的關系在大腦中形成的一張腦部圖。通過在環境中移動,將環境中各個物體之間的關系一個一個地聯系起來,就能夠最好地形成這種腦部地圖。很少或根本沒有視覺反饋來加強這種腦部地圖的話,有視覺障礙的人就必須依靠對關鍵性地標的記憶和其他線索。地標和線索使有視覺障礙的人能夠確定他的位置和空間。

            另外,移動指的是一個人在自然和社會環境中安全、有效地從一點向另一點行走的能力。良好的定位技能對良好的移動技能是必要的。一旦有視覺障礙的學生學會像行人一樣安全行走,他還需要學會使用公共交通工具,以便盡可能地獨立。

            為了滿足有視覺障礙者不斷增長的需求,人們制訂了一系列的培訓計劃,這種培訓開始于學前階段并持續到中學畢業。許多有視覺障礙的兒童對其環境中的空間或物體以及事件缺少適當的概念。在早期階段,培訓的重點應該放在一些基本概念的學習上,比如里或外、前或后、交通工具運行得快或慢、線路變化或交叉路口、電梯或自動扶梯等。這些概念對安全、有效地穿行于熟悉或不熟悉的環境至關重要,首先是有關建筑物內的概念,然后是有關其住宅區附近的概念,最后是有關商業區的概念。

            56. 【正確答案】A

            【考點類型】細節判斷

            【解析過程】我們如何能幫助那些有視覺障礙的人提高他們在周圍的環境中的能力?

            A. 幫助他們發展充分的定位和移動的技能。

            B. 教給他們學習觀察的技能。

            C. 警告他們危險的環境和障礙。

            D. 提高他們的視覺能力。

            線索:文章的第1段提到“Visual impairment(視覺障礙)carries with it a reduced or restricted ability to travel through one´s physical and social environment until adequate orientation and mobility skills have been established.”表明A是正確答案。選項B和選項C是問題產生的原因,而不是解決該問題的辦法。

            57. 【正確答案】B

            【考點類型】細節判斷

            【解析過程】有視覺障礙的人在空間的位置        。

            A. 不是被記憶力而是被身體特征和線索所決定

            B. 通過他腦部圖中的其他事物關系定位

            C. 使他能夠形成腦部圖

            D. 強化他有關周圍環境的腦部圖

            線索:文章的第2段提到“Orientation refers to the mental map one has of one´s surroundings and to the relationship between self and that environment. The mental map is best generated by moving.”表明選項B是正確答案。選項A和原文的第2段“…a visually impaired person must rely on memory for key landmarks and other clues. Landmarks and clues…”相反。

            58. 【正確答案】D

            【考點類型】細節判斷

            【解析過程】有視覺障礙的人學習的移動技能指的是        。

            A. 作為一個獨立旅行家旅行的技能

            B. 作為一個行人和乘客行走的能力

            C. 作為一個帶同伴的行人行走的能力

            D. 在安全的自然和社會環境下行走的能力

            線索:文章的第3段提到“Mobility,on the other hand,is the ability to travel safely and efficiently from one point to another within one´s physical and social environment.”表明選項D是正確答案。

            59. 【正確答案】D

            【考點類型】細節判斷

            【解析過程】本文作者強調        。

            A. 有視覺障礙的孩子為了生存應該上學

            B. 視覺上的需求損害了兒童的發展

            C. 有視覺障礙的人獲得基本的安全移動的概念

            D. 學齡前的兒童應該得到有關時間、空間或事物等概念的培訓

            線索:文章的第4段提到“…These concepts are essential to safe,efficient travel through familiar and unfamiliar settings…”表明選項D是正確答案。

            60. 【正確答案】D

            【考點類型】主旨判斷

            【解析過程】本文作者主要談論的是        。

            A. 視覺障礙和記憶力

            B. 視覺障礙的人的自然和社會環境

            C. 視覺障礙的人的智力發展

            D. 有視覺障礙的人的定位和移動

            從整體上看,文章討論了視覺障礙的人的方位確定和移動。

            Copyright ? 2010-2012 www.awgr.cn All Right Reserved 中國最具影響力的在職研究生門戶網
            中國研究生教育網  版權所有  滬ICP備11041840號

            六零吃饭嫁人养娃,日本一区二区三区高清,伊人色综合久久天天人手人婷,茶油的作用与功效